Artificial Intelligence: A Scientific Breakthrough in the 21st Century

As paradigm shifts, technology is advancing faster and is being adopted by many. We are at the dawn of a new age, the age of machine intelligence. Artificial Intelligence could radically change life on our planet because it has the potential to reform every aspect of daily life, medicine, workforce, the economy, and communication. Here, we'll tackle the significant impact of A.I. in different sectors of human life. And, you'll also learn how an A.I. works. 

What is Artificial Intelligence?

"I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'"

Alan Turing • Father of Theoretical Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence

A.I. is a branch of computer science dealing with computer systems that behave and solve problems that generally require human intelligence—for instance, recognizing images, engaging in dialogue, and even making decisions. The most primary form of Artificial Intelligence is categorized under machine learning. Machine learning combines statistics and computer science to allow computers to learn how to do a given task without being programmed. This enables them to recognize valuable information, perform conclusions, or formulate predictions. A computer programmed to learn will search statistical patterns within the data and make it possible to identify a thing. The premise was that computer technology would one-day function efficiently than humans.

The Early History of A.I.

The quest for artificial intelligence became pervasive in the late 1930s, 1940s, and early 1950s. During the Second World War, Alan Turing broke the Nazi Enigma code, which gave allies the advantage to triumph over the war in Europe. Alan Turing's theory of computation showed that machines could use vital information and reason to solve complex problems and make decisions like humans. His idea suggested that it might be possible to build an electronic brain. 

Alan Turing

The Bombe in Bletchley Park

In the late 1950s, Frank Rosenblatt developed what he called a perceptron, and it was a neural network. A neural network is a virtual, imitation version of the human brain. In anatomy, we learned that the brain is the most intricate part of our body. It's got 85 billion neurons, each works non-stop, receiving, processing, and sending information. Unfortunately, Rosenblatt's neural network was only a single layer of neurons during his time, and its functions were limited. It then resulted in putting the whole area of research into inactivity for ten years. 

Frank Rosenblatt implementing Perceptron, which he narrates as the first machine "capable of having an original idea."

Modern A.I.

Silicon Valley in California is the epicenter of the digital revolution, with Apple, Google, and Facebook's headquarters located here. Geoff Hinton, an A.I. guru who now works for Google, made modern A.I. a reality. In the mid-80s, he discovered how to make more complicated neural nets to solve more complex problems. He and his fellow researchers developed a multi-layered neural network modeled after the human brain, which allows us to materialize the dreams of A.I. researchers like Alan Turing and Frank Rosenblatt back in the 1950s.

How does A.I. work?

"If you want to understand a complicated device like a brain, you should build one."

Geoff Hinton • Cognitive Psychologist and Computer Scientist

The artificial Intelligence brain works with nodes instead of neurons. The more nodes they are exposed to, the more they learn. A.I. is run on data and powered by data. So the neural can learn to make decisions over time. Developers of A.I. wanted to create robots that can learn, interpret, and interact to enable humans to accomplish more by eliminating repetitive tasks. 

Redefining the Future of Education

There are countless opportunities for Artificial Intelligence's impact on Education.  With AI, there is a potential for profoundly personalized learning experiences for people of all ages. An A.I. algorithm can study students' learning habits and match the learning modules or activities to foremost support students' learning process. Moreover, it will provide high-quality education that is accessible to everyone.  Together with scientists and content providers, AI and technology can bring forth literacy to society's most underprivileged communities.  Through problem-based learning, students will become immersed to understand problems and apply their knowledge to design solutions. By computational systems, students cognitive capacity is challenged to create things that were once out of reach. Building the impossible can be achieved through the augmentation of humans, robots, and AI. What if we have knowledge that can help us influence the world from the things that we create? 

Better Healthcare Through Artificial Intelligence

Researchers in the healthcare community are now using artificial intelligence algorithms in detecting and diagnosing various life-threatening illnesses such as infectious diseases and cancer. Doctors, scientists, and researchers in the same field partner with Artificial Intelligence as decision-making assistance. Now we have tools such as speech recognition technology, medical imaging, pathology, and many more to capture vital medical research data. Artificial Intelligence is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert physicians, advanced medical technologies to detect cancerous cells. If seen early, the higher the chance of curing the disease without chemotherapy or radiation.  Doctors are acquiring data from patients, and then it needs to be interpreted by a supercomputing power. With the help of artificial agents, healthcare facilities determine the proper treatment for patients. It leverages a massive amount of data from other patients and calculates what information to utilize to reliably and precisely make these assessments. It's no longer just doctors who use artificial intelligence to develop new diagnostic methods but data scientists, programmers, and mathematicians. 

Will A Robot Take My Job?

The rise of artificial intelligence is a daunting idea for some when they think about the future of the workforce. However, many economists believe that automation will fundamentally generate new jobs. Applying modern technology creates new jobs in many ways. It would promote jobs for people who build and maintain the technology, and even whole new industries fashioned to design the technology.  With higher productivity, emerging companies can now expand and thus generate more jobs. In addition, competition in the market would hinder monopolization. Since there are several players in the market, people will have options to purchase other goods and services. According to Dr. Bernhard Schindlholzer, there will be a rise in the demand for non-routine creative knowledge work, which is a work that aims to design solutions that solve problems in the world. Similar to the work done by researchers, scientists, programmers, engineers, physicists, etc. But since there is an immeasurable number of problems globally, there will always be work for somebody who can solve real-life challenges.

What lies ahead AI

The world is full of disruptive innovation and technologies with actual and tremendous global influence. But we must treat AI as a tool and become more responsible in utilizing it in our daily lives. Moreover, researchers and developers should put more effort into making progress with their inventions. In the same way, policy-makers and corporations have to take responsibility in our daily lives. because as soon as computers start making decisions that affect people's lives, those decisions have to be honest and socially fair. Indeed, there is a lot that we can do with artificial intelligence to enhance the world. Even the impossible today can be achievable in the future with the use of artificial intelligence. 

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Artificial Intelligence: A Scientific Breakthrough in the 21st Century
snoosnoo 26 June, 2021
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